Use Of Conventional Biomass In Nigeria – A Disturbing Pattern
In response to the Vitality Data Administration, Nigeria is the most important producer of oil in Africa, producing over 2.53 Million barrels per day of crude oil and in addition holds the most important pure gasoline reserves within the African continent (ninth on this planet). Given these information, the somewhat difficult actuality is that out of the full vitality consumed in Nigeria domestically on an annual foundation, crude oil solely takes 13% whereas pure gasoline consumption is a meagre four%. The majority of vitality consumed in Nigeria is drawn from conventional biomass and waste as roughly 82% is consumed yearly. This arguably presents a damning image of our vitality profile which the remainder of the world will anticipate to be not less than extra strong and higher diversified.
Roughly, over 95% of Nigeria’s gasoline assets are exported to Asia Pacific, Atlantic and European markets within the type of Liquefied Pure Fuel and the West African Fuel Pipeline additionally serves as channel for regional gasoline exports leaving solely a small share for native consumption. Presently, the principle use of home pure gasoline provide is for thermal electrical energy era and cooking functions within the type of Liquefied Petroleum Fuel. It now begs the query; what’s the demand out there for the home provide of pure gasoline? Fuel initiatives are identified to be very costly and so they require large long run capital funding so it’s only truthful to anticipate a good return on capital. Given this and contemplating Nigeria’s inhabitants and earnings per-capita, how can we faucet into this large useful resource base and supply cheaper and simpler entry for home use?
For the consumption of crude oil and its derivatives primarily for locomotives, cooking and impartial energy era, the issues of pricing and affordability nonetheless pose a serious problem. The then less expensive kerosene majority of the populace use for cooking is now quick turning into very unaffordable for the frequent man as a result of gross inefficiency and corruption marring the sector. I’ve learn some current surveys the place folks have confessed to purchasing a litre of Kerosene for as excessive as N250.
TRADITIONAL BIOMASS TO THE RESCUE
After contemplating the prevailing points dealing with the home entry to grease and gasoline assets in Nigeria, extra folks now rely on conventional biomass as a approach of assembly their residential vitality wants. Traditionally, the usage of conventional biomass (fireplace wooden, coal and waste) has at all times been probably the most consumed vitality supply in Nigeria however as time glided by, one would anticipate the established order to regulate given our useful resource base and a humiliation of riches in technical experience. This has not been the case.
As we’ve got seen, carbon emission on account of burning firewood for cooking is extraordinarily harmful to the surroundings and one of many main causes of loss of life in younger kids. To place this in perspective, in response to the IEA, globally, 1.three million untimely deaths per 12 months are straight attributable to indoor air air pollution from the usage of biomass, with greater than half of those deaths kids below 5 years of age. As well as, biomass accounts for over 90% of residential vitality consumption in Sub-Saharan African nations.
That is fairly an fascinating challenge as we’re confronted with the problem of bridging the hole between environmental friendliness and financial sustainability. In current day Nigeria, given the issue of paucity of knowledge, one can logically assume that it might not be a stroll within the park for a median citizen who utilises firewood and charcoal as technique of cooking to change to gasoline or kerosene. Firewood is cheaper, simple to entry and majority in rural areas have entry to the uncooked materials freed from cost; therefore, any improvement that may put the slightest pressure on their price range might be instantly ignored.
This case poses a giant problem for the federal government contemplating the importance of its future implication on the surroundings. We’re presently battling large points with the worldwide group on gasoline flaring as we rank second on the record of high 5 of gasoline flaring nations on this planet (EIA 2012). We even have the issue of the extremely toxic carbon monoxide emission arising from the usage of turbines which is among the causes of the warmth wave in industrialised and densely populated states like Lagos.
It’s fairly obvious that the elevated demand for firewood will trigger the present pattern of deforestation to proceed. This routinely piles extra strain on the ecosystem and contributes considerably to world warming. Nevertheless, how can we flip this pattern round with out placing extra monetary pressure on the populace?
As daunting because it may appear, the ability sector has a key position to play in lowering our dependence on conventional biomass. Efficient electrical energy reforms and the unbundling of the sector with environment friendly value regulation might be a superb starting. Low cost and steady electrical energy has at all times been a beautiful proposition as a result of number of functions it serves.